The introduction of Western Education and that of the press in India greatly led to the advancement of Indian literature. A rich quality of literature in various Indian vernaculars especially in Bengali, Hindi, Urdu, Marathi, Assamese etc. was enriched during this period of British company till 1857. The various social and religious reform movements gave a great impetus to the development of vernacular literature.
It is to be mentioned that the Danish missionary for the first time established a printing press of Tamil language in Madras in 1713. The centre of literary practice was first established in Srirampur of Bengal by Carrie, Marchman and ward. This was definitely a great contribution to the Bengali literature. Danish missionary published a Bangla news Weekly paper in the name of ‘Samachar Darpan’. Carrie wrote a Bangla Grammar and dictionary in the middle of the 18th century. Carrie also translated the Bible into Bengali language. Many writers played an important part in the progress and spread of Bengali literature but the names of Raja Ram Mohan Ray, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Madhusudan Dutta, Rabindranath Tagore also enriched the Bengali literature by his numerous writings in poetry and prose including drama, novels, stories, lyrics, sonnets etc. His writings won international fame and for writings his immortal “Geetanjali”, he won the Novel Prize. Thus the contribution of many writers and organizations like Brahma Samaj to the Bengali culture and literature is also of profound significance.
Lord Warren Hastings ONE OF THE Governor of the company contributed a remarkable contribution to the Indian culture. He learned the vernacular languages Urdu, Parsi and Bengali and Patronised those languages. In his patronage Bhagabat, Geeta was translated into English from Sanskrit. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal was established in his days. Similarly, Lord William Bentinck and Dalhousie made a remarkable contribution to the spread of education. They also did a lot for the preservation of movements and buildings of the ancient heritage of India.
In Assam, American Baptist Missionaries- Dr Nathan Brown, Oliver Carter and Miles Bronson first started the spread of English Education and development of Assamese language in Assam. They first started the mission at Sadiya, and later on, they shifted to Jaipur and Sibsagar. They also import education using local languages in Roman script. American Baptist Missionaries contribute much to the development of Assamese languages and literature by establishing printing press and publishing books and Magazines. Arunodai was the first Assamese news Magazine published in 1846 by the Baptist Missionaries in Assam. There are many English writers- Mrs Kattar, Nathan Brown, Mrs Ward and Bronson. They wrote Anglo-Assamese prose, Assamese Grammar, Anglo-Assamese vocabulary and a dictionary respectively. In this period Anundaram Dhekial Phukan wrote “Asomiya Lora Mitra”, Hemachandra Barua’s Asomiya Vyakaran and dictionary and many other books were written in this period. In the same period, several Magazines were published in Assamese- these were Ahom Vilasini, Assam Darpan, Assam Deepak etc. languages prosper and developed like other languages. Besides the literary development, in the field of dance, art, music and drama were also developed in the patronage of the govt. of British. On the other hand, the company govt. also took interest in the development of architecture, sculpture and painting also. They built many churches, educational institutions, offices using the various design of flowers and trees, creepers etc.